energy can only be dissipated by using the nonlinear
deformations of beams and columns during earthquakes.
During minor to moderate earthquakes: The safety of
the structure may be guaranteed.
During major earthquakes: There are always permanently
plastic deformations in the structural members. It
is difficult to repair these hazards by using the traditional
seismic retrofit alternatives.
seismic energy can be isolated effectively by using
horizontally flexible base isolators.
The earthquake induced energy can be dissipated by using
energy absorbers installed in the existing structure.
The safety and capability of a structure during major
earthquakes can be guaranteed by using the structural